Will Artificial Intelligence Revolutionise Eye Healthcare?

Nick Mandella our consultant managing the role
Posting date: 9/26/2018 1:32 PM
Faced with a rapidly expanding and increasingly older population, Healthcare resources in both the UK and US are facing an unprecedented level of demand. With only limited resource available, conversation is beginning to turn to the potential use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to ease some of the strain.

A recent example already seeing success is the current collaboration between Google’s DeepMind and London’s Moorfields Eye Hospital. But, as the lines begin to blur between human and machine-diagnosis, it’s worth questioning what role AI should actually play. 

SEEING THE POTENTIAL IN AI


Aside from the increase in population, there are many societal elements that are affecting the healthcare system. An increase in illnesses such as diabetes has led to a rise in eye-diseases and increased demand on optometrists. 

Fortunately, AI can speed up the process with new technologies allowing systems like DeepMind to make their own diagnosis.

Optical Coherence Technology (OCT) allows optometrists to create a 3D scans of people’s eyes. By bouncing near-infrared light of the interior surfaces of the eye, it can create an image that will reveal any abnormalities. DeepMind has been trained on over 15,000 scans and can now form a likely diagnosis, having used algorithms to find common patterns within the data. 

Head of DeepMind, Mustafa Suleyman, says:

“ [This could] transform the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with sight threatening eye conditions [...] around the world.”

However, with an accuracy of just over 94%, there is still enough room for error to cause concern, especially given the potential consequences of an incorrect diagnosis. 

LOOKING FOR MISTAKES 


This doesn’t mean we should rule out the use of AI altogether. Whilst we may not be able to solely rely on the technology for diagnosis, it can be effective when working hand-in-hand with a human skillset. 

In particular, by using AI systems for Triage purposes (determining what order patients should be seen in), as opposed to making a full diagnosis, patients demonstrating more significant symptoms could be reported and seen by a medical professional as priority, potentially leading to a higher chance of recovery. 

When AI is used as a driver for patient management, as opposed to being viewed as alternative physician, it can create a faster and more efficient process. 

To help continue to improve the results produced by DeepMind, the NHS have been given a validated version to use for free for the next five years. Using real-world applications over this time should streamline both their processes, and the technology itself. 

A LONG TERM VISION


For the time being, AI’s role within Eye Health is one of evolution, not revolution. With the inconsistency of current technology and the impact of incorrect results on people’s sight, it can only be utilised as a supporting tool. 

For now, the skillsets of Data Analysts and medical doctors remain too separate to full work hand-in-hand. Add to this the risks of automation bias (a willingness to blindly trust a machine’s output), and the margin of error is too high. 

However, that’s not to say that AI can’t and won’t play a significant part in the future of Healthcare. With the technology to detect eye conditions through the lens of your smartphone camera closer than ever to mainstream use, AI is set to play a huge role in outpatient treatment. At this stage, however, that role will be one of risk predictor, not eliminator. 

If you think you have the skillset to help take AI to the next level in Healthcare we may have a role for you.

Take a look at our latest opportunities or get in contact with our team. 

Related blog & news

With over 10 years experience working solely in the Data & Analytics sector our consultants are able to offer detailed insights into the industry.

Visit our Blogs & News portal or check out the related posts below.

How Big Data Is Impacting Logistics

How Big Data is Impacting Logistics

As Big Data can reveal patterns, trends and associations relating to human behaviour and interactions, it’s no surprise that Data & Analytics are changing the way that the supply chain sector operates today.  From informing and predicting buying trends to streamlining order processing and logistics, technological innovations are impacting the industry, boosting efficiency and improving supply chain management.  Analysing behavioural patterns Using pattern recognition systems, Artificial Intelligence is able to analyse Big Data. During this process, Artificial Intelligence defines and identifies external influences which may affect the process of operations (such as customer purchasing choices) using Machine Learning algorithms. From the Data collected, Artificial Intelligence is able to determine information or characteristics which can inform us of repetitive behaviour or predict statistically probable actions.  Consequently, organisation and planning can be undertaken with ease to improve the efficiency of the supply chain. For example, ordering a calculated amount of stock in preparation for a busy season can be made using much more accurate predictions - contributing to less over-stocking and potentially more profit. As a result, analysing behavioural patterns facilitates better management and administration, with a knock-on effect for improving processes.  Streamlining operations  Using image recognition technology, Artificial Intelligence enables quicker processes that are ideally suited for warehouses and stock control applications. Additionally, transcribing voice to text applications mean stock can be identified and processed quickly to reach its destination, reducing the human resource time required and minimising human error.  Artificial intelligence has also changed the way we use our inventory systems. Using natural language interaction, enterprises have the capability to generate reports on sales, meaning businesses can quickly identify stock concerns and replenish accordingly. Intelligence can even communicate these reports, so Data reliably reaches the next person in the supply chain, expanding capabilities for efficient operations to a level that humans physically cannot attain. It’s no surprise that when it comes to warehousing and packaging operations Artificial Intelligence can revolutionise the efficiency of current systems. With image recognition now capable of detecting which brands and logos are visible on cardboard boxes of all sizes, monitoring shelf space is now possible on a real-time basis. In turn, Artificial Intelligence is able to offer short term insights that would have previously been restricted to broad annual time frames for consumers and management alike.  Forecasting  Many companies manually undertake forecasting predictions using excel spreadsheets that are then subject to communication and data from other departments. Using this method, there’s ample room for human error as forecasting cannot be uniform across all regions in national or global companies. This can create impactful mistakes which have the potential to make predictions increasingly inaccurate.  Using intelligent stock management systems, Machine Learning algorithms can predict when stock replenishment will be required in warehouse environments. When combined with trend prediction technology, warehouses will effectively be capable enough to almost run themselves  negating the risk of human error and wasted time. Automating the forecasting process decreases cycle time, while providing early warning signals for unexpected issues, leaving businesses better prepared for most eventualities that may not have been spotted by the human eye.  Big Data is continuing to transform the world of logistics, and utilising it in the best way possible is essential to meeting customer demands and exercising agile supply chain management.  If you’re interested in utilising Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to help improve processes, Harnham may be able to help. Take a look at our latest opportunities or get in touch with one of our expert consultants to find out more.  Author Bio: Alex Jones is a content creator for Kendon Packaging. Now one of Britain's leading packaging companies, Kendon Packaging has been supporting businesses nationwide since the 1930s.

Data Science Interview Questions: What The Experts Say

Our friends at Data Science Dojo have compiled a list of 101 actual Data Science interview questions that have been asked between 2016-2019 at some of the largest recruiters in the Data Science industry – Amazon, Microsoft, Facebook, Google, Netflix, Expedia, etc.  Data Science is an interdisciplinary field and sits at the intersection of computer science, statistics/mathematics, and domain knowledge. To be able to perform well, one needs to have a good foundation in not one but multiple fields, and it reflects in the interview. They've divided the questions into six categories:  Machine LearningData AnalysisStatistics, Probability, and MathematicsProgrammingSQLExperiential/Behavioural Questions Once you've gone through all the questions, you should have a good understanding of how well you're prepared for your next Data Science interview. Machine Learning As one will expect, Data Science interviews focus heavily on questions that help the company test your concepts, applications, and experience on machine learning. Each question included in this category has been recently asked in one or more actual Data Science interviews at companies such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft, etc. These questions will give you a good sense of what sub-topics appear more often than others. You should also pay close attention to the way these questions are phrased in an interview.  Explain Logistic Regression and its assumptions.Explain Linear Regression and its assumptions.How do you split your data between training and validation?Describe Binary Classification.Explain the working of decision trees.What are different metrics to classify a dataset?What's the role of a cost function?What's the difference between convex and non-convex cost function?Why is it important to know bias-variance trade off while modeling?Why is regularisation used in machine learning models? What are the differences between L1 and L2 regularisation?What's the problem of exploding gradients in machine learning?Is it necessary to use activation functions in neural networks?In what aspects is a box plot different from a histogram?What is cross validation? Why is it used?Can you explain the concept of false positive and false negative?Explain how SVM works.While working at Facebook, you're asked to implement some new features. What type of experiment would you run to implement these features?What techniques can be used to evaluate a Machine Learning model?Why is overfitting a problem in machine learning models? What steps can you take to avoid it?Describe a way to detect anomalies in a given dataset.What are the Naive Bayes fundamentals?What is AUC - ROC Curve?What is K-means?How does the Gradient Boosting algorithm work?Explain advantages and drawbacks of Support Vector Machines (SVM).What is the difference between bagging and boosting?Before building any model, why do we need the feature selection/engineering step?How to deal with unbalanced binary classification?What is the ROC curve and the meaning of sensitivity, specificity, confusion matrix?Why is dimensionality reduction important?What are hyperparameters, how to tune them, how to test and know if they worked for the particular problem?How will you decide whether a customer will buy a product today or not given the income of the customer, location where the customer lives, profession, and gender? 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Explain them briefly.How does a neural network with one layer and one input and output compare to a logistic regression?Why Rectified Linear Unit/ReLU is a good activation function?When using the Gaussian mixture model, how do you know it's applicable?If a Product Manager says that they want to double the number of ads in Facebook's Newsfeed, how would you figure out if this is a good idea or not?What do you know about LSTM?Explain the difference between generative and discriminative algorithms.Can you explain what MapReduce is and how it works? If the model isn't perfect, how would you like to select the threshold so that the model outputs 1 or 0 for label?Are boosting algorithms better than decision trees? If yes, why?What do you think are the important factors in the algorithm Uber uses to assign rides to drivers?How does speech synthesis works? Data Analysis Machine Learning concepts are not the only area in which you'll be tested in the interview. Data pre-processing and data exploration are other areas where you can always expect a few questions. We're grouping all such questions under this category. Data Analysis is the process of evaluating data using analytical and statistical tools to discover useful insights. Once again, all these questions have been recently asked in one or more actual Data Science interviews at the companies listed above.   What are the core steps of the data analysis process?How do you detect if a new observation is an outlier?Facebook wants to analyse why the "likes per user and minutes spent on a platform are increasing, but total number of users are decreasing". How can they do that?If you have a chance to add something to Facebook then how would you measure its success?If you are working at Facebook and you want to detect bogus/fake accounts. How will you go about that?What are anomaly detection methods?How do you solve for multicollinearity?How to optimise marketing spend between various marketing channels?What metrics would you use to track whether Uber's strategy of using paid advertising to acquire customers works?What are the core steps for data preprocessing before applying machine learning algorithms?How do you inspect missing data?How does caching work and how do you use it in Data Science? Statistics, Probability and Mathematics As we've already mentioned, Data Science builds its foundation on statistics and probability concepts. Having a strong foundation in statistics and probability concepts is a requirement for Data Science, and these topics are always brought up in data science interviews. Here is a list of statistics and probability questions that have been asked in actual Data Science interviews. How would you select a representative sample of search queries from 5 million queries?Discuss how to randomly select a sample from a product user population.What is the importance of Markov Chains in Data Science?How do you prove that males are on average taller than females by knowing just gender or height.What is the difference between Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP)?What does P-Value mean?Define Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and it's application?There are six marbles in a bag, one is white. You reach in the bag 100 times. After drawing a marble, it is placed back in the bag. What is the probability of drawing the white marble at least once?Explain Euclidean distance.Define variance.How will you cut a circular cake into eight equal pieces?What is the law of large numbers?How do you weigh nine marbles three times on a balance scale to select the heaviest one?You call three random friends who live in Seattle and ask each independently if it's raining. Each of your friends has a 2/3 chance of telling you the truth and a 1/3 chance of lying. All three say "yes". What's the probability it's actually raining? Explain a probability distribution that is not normal and how to apply that?You have two dice. What is the probability of getting at least one four? Also find out the probability of getting at least one four if you have n dice.Draw the curve log(x+10) Programming When you appear for a data science interview your interviewers are not expecting you to come up with a highly efficient code that takes the lowest resources on computer hardware and executes it quickly. However, they do expect you to be able to use R, Python, or SQL programming languages so that you can access the data sources and at least build prototypes for solutions. You should expect a few programming/coding questions in your data science interviews. You interviewer might want you to write a short piece of code on a whiteboard to assess how comfortable you are with coding, as well as get a feel for how many lines of codes you typically write in a given week.  Here are some programming and coding questions that companies like Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have asked in their Data Science interviews.  Write a function to check whether a particular word is a palindrome or not.Write a program to generate Fibonacci sequence.Explain about string parsing in R languageWrite a sorting algorithm for a numerical dataset in Python.Coding test: moving average Input 10, 20, 30, 10, ... Output: 10, 15, 20, 17.5, ...Write a Python code to return the count of words in a stringHow do you find percentile? Write the code for itWhat is the difference between - (i) Stack and Queue and (ii) Linked list and Array? Structured Query Language (SQL) Real-world data is stored in databases and it ‘travels’ via queries. If there's one language a Data Science professional must know, it's SQL - or “Structured Query Language”. SQL is widely used across all job roles in Data Science and is often a ‘deal-breaker’. SQL questions are placed early on in the hiring process and used for screening. Here are some SQL questions that top companies have asked in their Data Science interviews.  How would you handle NULLs when querying a data set?How will you explain JOIN function in SQL in the simplest possible way?Select all customers who purchased at least two items on two separate days from Amazon.What is the difference between DDL, DML, and DCL?96. Why is Database Normalisation Important?What is the difference between clustered and non-clustered index? Situational/Behavioural Questions Capabilities don’t necessarily guarantee performance. It's for this reason employers ask you situational or behavioural questions in order to assess how you would perform in a given situation. In some cases, a situational or behavioural question would force you to reflect on how you behaved and performed in a past situation. A situational question can help interviewers in assessing your role in a project you might have included in your resume, can reveal whether or not you're a team player, or how you deal with pressure and failure. Situational questions are no less important than any of the technical questions, and it will always help to do some homework beforehand. Recall your experience and be prepared!  Here are some situational/behavioural questions that large tech companies typically ask:    What was the most challenging project you have worked on so far? Can you explain your learning outcomes?According to your judgement, does Data Science differ from Machine Learning?If you're faced with Selection Bias, how will you avoid it?How would you describe Data Science to a Business Executive? If you're looking for new Data Science role, you can find our latest opportunities here.  This article was written by Tooba Mukhtar and Rahim Rasool for Data Science Jojo. It has been republished with permission. You can view the original article, which includes answers to the above questions here. 

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